UCLA/Getty Conservation Program

A graduate conservation training program focusing on the conservation of archaeological and ethnographic materials

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Conservation and Ethnography: Promoting Cultural Heritage in Southern California

Last quarter, UCLA/Getty students took the course “Conservation and Ethnography” (CAEM 222) taught by Prof. Ellen Pearlstein. The goal for the class was to acquaint students with the changing emphasis of conservation, from neutral acts based purely on material properties, to a series of humanistic and scientific decisions that consider the heritage source, its specific communities, the current and future roles for heritage, as well as evolving technical developments for both prevention and treatment. Through the examination and treatment of southern California basketry, students learned about these aspects of conservation as well as focused on the processes and properties of California (and neighboring) states’ native basketry, deterioration mechanisms and conservation treatment methods.

In addition to treating southern California baskets from the collection of the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum and the Yosemite Museum, students were asked to imagine that in addition to creating their documentation for the next conservator, that they are creating it to assist Cahuilla weavers, ethnobotanists, revivalists, cultural descendants, or museum board and staff members in using their class project basket to answer questions and to promote culture. You can find links to the documentation they produced below.



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ACCM & UCLA/Getty collaboration in the news

In the recent issue of The Spirit, the newsletter of the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum, an article describes the collaboration between the museum and the UCLA/Getty program which began in 2007 and highlights the work the conservation program students have done as part of this partnership.  Images and reports of the objects they have examined and treated over the years will soon be available on the ACCM website as part of an online exhibition.  Stay tuned for more information on that exhibition soon.



A second start: A suction table treatment of a basket start affected by mold

As part of our class “Conservation and Ethnography”, each student worked on an object from the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum (Palm Springs, CA).  I worked on a Kumeyaay coiled basketry start owned by a private collector in Palm Springs that had mold growing on both sides of the object.

The Kumeyaay are located at what is now the border between the United States and Mexico, along the Pacific coast. This coiled start has thirteen coils and the beginnings of a spiral pattern, all made out of juncus. The five-part spiral pattern was created through the introduction of the red portion of the juncus stems.

Front of basket start before treatment

Back of basket start before treatment

Mold developed on the object due to a combination of a source of moisture and cycles in temperature. Molds can damage the surface and structure of individual objects and can spread from object to object within a collection. Therefore, this object was treated to remove the mold in order to prevent further damage to the object as well as to prevent the mold from spreading.

The mold was located on both the front and back surface of the object affecting both the epidermis and the cuticle of the fiber and possibly causing darkening of cracks. The presence of mold on both sides of the object suggests that it was also present within the object itself. The mold covered approximately one third to one half of each of the object’s faces.

Preventive Conservation and Vacuuming

The treatment of the object began with preventive conservation measures. The basket start was placed on a tray in two polyethylene bags with a desiccant. The tray was designed to be somewhat rigid to prevent any mechanical damage to the brittle plant material during handling while in cold storage. The silica gel desiccant was placed in polyethylene bags with cheese-cloth windows. The object was then placed in the freezer to prevent new mold growth. The removal of moisture from the object and the reduction of temperature prevented the continued growth of the mold.

The object on its tray in a polyethylene bag with the silica gel and a cobalt RH indicating strip

Dessicant packet

Once the moisture from the mold was removed and the mold could be brushed without smearing, it was removed by vacuuming with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum. The nozzle of the vacuum was covered with a fine mesh cloth to prevent any loose fragments of the basket from being vacuumed up. A brush was used to dislodge the mold and guide it to the vacuum nozzle.

Vacuuming the basket with a HEPA vacuum and a brush

Detail of the mold

During treatment, to protect against the mold spreading, surfaces were covered with tissue paper. When possible treatment occurred within a fume hood or with a fume extractor nearby, while also wearing goggles, a respirator with a particulate filter, gloves and a lab coat. At the end of each day, the tissue paper was folded up and disposed.  The tools were cleaned and the area wiped down with ethanol with 20% water (Florian, 2000, Guild and MacDonald, 2004:20-21).

The Suction Table Treatment

In order to fully clean the object and reduce the chance that the mold would begin to grow again on the object, the object was cleaned with ethanol with 20% water on a suction table (alt. solvent trap or suction disk). The suction table treatment was chose because it would pull the ethanol solution through the object, guaranteeing that the solution would penetrate the interior of the object and kill any mold present within.

Diagram of the suction table (Image modified from Stiber and O’Loughlin, 1992)

Suction tables are like flat vacuums and exert suction on the materials placed on them. The vacuum creates a pull in the Erlenmeyer flask, which pulls at the air through the filter. The water in the flask traps the mold and prevents it from entering the vacuum. The filter paper helps to pull the solvent down and away from the object (Hackney and Fairbrass, 1980, Michalski, 1984, Varga, 2007, Vitale, 1988, Weidner, 1984).

The suction table created for this treatment had a perforated metal sheet over the funnel opening to provide support to the object and filter paper while still permitting air to pass through (Katz, 1999).  The manufacturer of the Cast-N-Vac pump (vacuum pressure: 26 Hg) used for this suction table was contacted and to confirm that ethanol could be used safely with the machine.

Suction table

Before applying any solution to the object, spot tests were carried out to ensure that it would not adversely affect the object. Then, the object was placed on the suction table and the ethanol with 20% water solution was applied by pipette to the area over the opening in the table. Enough solvent was applied to pass through the object and appear on the filter paper below. After the vacuum had had a chance to pull most of the solvent through, the object was moved so that another section was over the suction opening and the process began again.

Following treatment, the object was placed in a bag with several packets of a desiccant. The packets of desiccant were refreshed when they changed color, indicating they had reached saturation. The removal of the moisture introduced during treatment was important to prevent the growth of any new or remaining mold spores on the object. Several days after treatment, the object was examined under a microscope to look for any remaining mold spores. None were found and therefore it seems likely that the suction table treatment removed the mold.

Additionally, the filter papers used to test and conduct the suction table treatment were photographed in normal and UV light. These were then compared with an unused blank filter paper and a filter paper that had had the ethanol and water mixture applied to it. The test and treatment filter papers fluoresce and the unused filter papers do not. This suggests that something was removed during the treatment. You can also see that the treatment filter paper is slightly yellowed. This may indicate that some components of the plant materials may have been solubilized by the ethanol-water solution and transferred to the filter paper or the fluorescing material could be related to the mold.

Filter papers viewed with diffuse light and UV induced visible fluorescence

The most effective and efficient method of mold prevention is maintaining good climate conditions. For mold prevention, this means keeping the relative humidity below 65%. For storage collections, increasing air circulation can also help to reduce mold growth by ensuring that no localized areas of high relative humidity develop. For this object, a box was made to facilitate the maintenance of a dry microclimate and prevent future outbreaks of mold.

Basket start after treatment

Treatment Materials
Buehler Ltd.
41 Waukegan Road, P.O. Box 1
Lake Bluff, Illinois 60044-1699 USA

Dessicating Silica Gel, Item # MS03/O
Conservation Resources International, LLC
5532 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia, 22151

The silica gel used in this treatment maintains a very low relative humidity. It can be refreshed by removing the silica gel from the bag and placing it in the oven until it turns orange. It can then be cooled and placed back inside the packet.

Works Cited

Florian, MLE. 2000. Aseptic technique: a goal to strive for in collection recovery of moldy archival materials and artifacts. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 38 (1):107-15.

Guild, S, and M MacDonald. 2004. Mould Prevention and Collection Recovery: Guidelines for Heritage Collections. Vol. 26, Technical Bulletin. Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute.

Hackney, S, and S Fairbrass. 1980. A High Vacuum Suction System for the Removal of Stains on Paper. The Conservator 4:1-4.

Katz, K. 1999. An Inexpensive Mini-Suction Table. AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints, edited by F. Wallace. American Institute for Conservation 27th Annual Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 85.

Michalski, S. 1984. The Suction Table: II A Physical Model. AIC Preprints. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works Preprints of the 12th annual meeting, Los Angeles, California. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 102-111

Stiber, Linda and Elissa O’Loughlin. 1992. Hinge, Tape and Adhesive Removal. Chap. 15 in Paper Conservation Catalog. Washington D.C.: American Institute for Conservation Book and Paper Group. www.conservation-wiki.com/index.php?title=BP_Chapter_15_-_Hinge,_Tape_and_Adhesive_Removal (accessed 03/15/2011).

Varga, L. 2007. A Hand-Held Surface Suction Device: Design, Construction and Application. Textile Specialty Group Postprints. American Institute for Conservation 35th Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 93-106

Vitale, T. 1988. Observations on the Theory, Use and Fabrication of the Fritted Glass Bead, Small Suction Disk Device. The Paper Conservator 12:47-67.

Weidner, Marilyn. 1984. The Suction Table: Ten Year Review of its Development. AIC Preprints. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works Preprints of the 12th annual meeting, Los Angeles, California. Washington, D.C.: AIC. 94-101.

Robin OHern (’12)

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Collaboration between the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program and ACCM Part 2: A Visit to the Villa

Several weeks after the students visited the museum in Palm Springs, Dawn Wellman and Sean Milanovich came to the Getty Villa to discuss basket-making techniques and the pieces the students were working on. Several other guests, including native basketry expert William Pink, former UCLA/Getty student Molly Gleeson, and independent curator Bryn Potter, also offered their expertise.

The morning began with a talk from Molly regarding her work in Alaska with baskets in museums and with local weavers. Several of the students found this information particularly helpful, as they were working with pieces from the Northwest Coast region. Molly presented a fascinating overview of her work, which included gathering local materials, speaking with local weavers, creating her own twined basket, and treating a variety of pieces at several different institutions. Following the talk, the students and visitors shared lunch, before heading up to the laboratory to discuss the baskets.

Visitors examine some of the pieces to be treated from the ACCM collection

Students talked individually about each of the pieces they were working on, sharing information they had uncovered regarding the technology, condition, and cultural attribution of each of the objects. Dawn Wellman (curator at ACCM), Sean Milanovich (Cultural Specialist, Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians), Bryn Potter (Curator and basketry expert), William Pink (Luiseño and native basketry expert), and Molly Gleeson all participated in the discussion, and shared their thoughts with the students regarding each of the pieces. This exchange of information was valuable for all parties involved. The students shared information discovered through technical examination and research, which was then further informed by the knowledge the visitors had to offer.

Current student Nicole Ledoux discusses the basket she will be treating

Following discussion of the pieces from the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum, Willie Pink did a variety of presentations for the class, showcasing the use of traditional plant materials from the area.

Here Willie demonstrates how to makes a yucca fiber brush

This was particularly interesting for one of the students, who was working on a pair of fiber sandals that might have been created from processed yucca fiber. Following the presentation, some students also had the chance to create yucca brushes themselves. Again, this provided an important understanding of the processing of elements and the processes involved in constructing objects made of these fiber elements.

Freshly processed yucca fiber (left), held adjacent to a previously-processed, dry yucca fiber brush (right)

After showing the students how dogbane is split, processed, and twined into cordage, Willie showed demonstrated making netting out of dogbane as well.

Dogbane cordage

Current student Robin O’Hern examines unprocessed dogbane

Following Willie’s presentation, students had a chance to use plant materials and try their hand at some of the techniques that Willie had demonstrated. Each of the students was eager to contribute links to the dogbane net!

Lily Doan examines the dogbane net that Willie began

Lily Doan holds the net taught as Tessa de Alarcon adds additional links, using the techniques demonstrated by Willie

Here, Robin splits juncus with her teeth, a technique that can be quite difficult for a first-timer!

Overall, the day provided an incredible opportunity for the students to learn from, and engage in discussions with, all of the visitors, each of whom had much to

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Visit to Palm Springs: Collaboration between the UCLA/Getty Master’s Program and the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum

At the beginning of the winter quarter, the students went to the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum in Palm Springs to work with the staff of the museum on a collaborative project involving the conservation of basketry from the museum’s collection.

Their two-day visit to Palm Springs began with a talk from Native American basket weaver Abe Sanchez (Purapeche), who led the students in a basket-weaving workshop.

Students examine some of Abe’s beautiful coiled baskets. The one with the butterflies pictured here is sumac on a deergrass foundation using juncus and dyed juncus for the patterns.

Originally, the group had planned to go out with Abe to gather basket-making materials and see the plants in their natural habitats. Unfortunately, due to some unexpected inclement weather, this part of the trip had to be canceled, but Abe was generous enough to bring in some of his own materials for the students to examine and use.

Abe shows the students some juncus that he had gathered.

Juncus (Juncus textilis), a very important traditional basketry material, is one of the primary plants used in this region.

Following a delightful lunch, Agua Caliente Cultural Museum Curator Dawn Wellman led the students on a tour around the gallery, which currently showcases their collection of Cahuilla baskets, in an exhibition called ‘Song of the Basket.’

Dawn discusses one of the cases that focuses on the common materials and techniques in traditional Cahuilla coiled basketry.

Dawn has carefully put together a remarkable showcase from the museum’s collection (open through October 16, 2011), which includes pieces that past students from the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program have treated. Examining the exhibit provided a good forum for discussion between the students and the staff. Additionally, the students had the chance to consider the context in which the baskets they are treating might be viewed.

After the tour, Abe led the UCLA/Getty students, faculty, and some guests, in creating their own twined baskets. He started by explaining the methods used to make twined baskets, beginning with the basketry start (seen below).

The participants made baskets using the fresh juncus that Abe had brought. This is a good material for beginners because it is fairly pliable and easier to work with than the sumac that was used more frequently to traditionally make baskets in the region. Once everyone in our group had completed their basket starts, they continued on, adding additional juncus “spokes” to expand the basket base as they worked outwards.

The importance of shaping the basket as you progress (remembering that you shape the basket, the basket does not shape itself!) was emphasized.

In the end, everyone completed their own basketry project, and had a much better understanding of the techniques used to create twined basketry. Understanding construction techniques can help in determining cultural attribution, completing condition reports and recommending appropriate treatments.

Some of the particularly quick participants were able to complete two projects!

The following day, the students and faculty from the UCLA/Getty Master’s Program met with more members of the museum staff, to discuss tribal involvement in the Agua Caliente Cultural Museum, as well as the museum’s history and future goals. Director Michael Hammond, Curator Dawn Wellman, and Archivist Jon Fletcher all spoke about different aspects of the museum. It was interesting for the UCLA/Getty Conservation program’s students and faculty to hear more about how the museum functions, and how integral each of the staff members is in ensuring the museum’s success. Agua Caliente Tribal Council Member Moraino Patencio then described the tribe’s participation in the museum, as well as the importance of cultural participation. Everyone then broke for a wonderful buffet lunch, before heading back for two more talks with Pattie Tuck and Agua Caliente tribal member Sean Milanovich, both members of the Agua Caliente Tribal Historic Preservation Office. For many of the students, this was their first time talking to members of a Native community about tribal involvement in cultural resource management.

Finally, at the end of the day, the students toured the museum storage facility with Dawn Wellman and Sean Milanovich (as seen above). Seeing the museum’s rich collection of baskets from the native community allowed the students to connect the construction techniques and materials discussed with Abe and Dawn the day before to the baskets from the museum collection.

Additionally, Dawn reviewed the objects that had been selected for treatment in the collection, which includes basketry from across Western North America. Dawn and Ellen discussed the possible treatments they envisioned for some of the pieces, as well as the objects’ known histories. The selected objects were taken to the UCLA/Getty Villa labs at the end of the trip so the students could begin examining and treating them, in consultation with museum staff and members of the tribal community, as part of the course “Conservation and Ethnography” (CAEM222).

Dawn Lohnas (’12)