UCLA/Getty Conservation Program

A graduate conservation training program focusing on the conservation of archaeological and ethnographic materials


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ANAGPIC 2014, here we come!

We’re getting ready to head out later this week to the annual meeting of the Association of North American Graduate Programs in Conservation (ANAGPIC) hosted this year by our colleagues at the Art Conservation Dept., Buffalo State College.  We’re really looking forward to the student papers presented on Friday, the professional talks on Saturday focusing on “Extreme Conservation”, and meeting with colleagues and friends.

We’re also hoping the rumors of spring-like weather back east are true, since some of us are so acclimatized to the weather out here, anything below 65 causes hypothermia (Did I mention it’ll be in the 80′s here this week?!)

This year we’re excited to have our program represented again at the conference.  We have two students, and an alum, presenting. Below is a preview of their talk titles and abstracts.

And make sure to stay tuned for posts and pictures on our Twitter feed (@uclagettycons) and our Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/UCLAGettyProgram) from #anagpic2014!


Analysis and Conservation of a Pair of Cherokee Black-dyed Buckskin Moccasins: Preliminary Results
Alexis North (3rd year student, currently at University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology)

Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Peruvian Textiles
Betsy Burr (1st year student)

Delaying the Inevitable: An Investigation of Plastic Deterioration in Joseph Beuys Multiples
Nicole Ledoux (alum ’12, currently at the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Harvard Art Museums)




Post by Vanessa Muros, Conservation Specialist, UCLA/Getty Program


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How do you mount several tiny samples together?…..Very carefully!

We are all aware of how difficult it is to be able to take a sample from an artifact (both permission-wise and logistically) and when we need to, more often than not, the samples we take are extremely small.  Once we have our precious sample, we try to use as many examination and analytical techniques we can that are non-destructive to get the greatest amount of information from that one sample.  We may reach the point, however, where we need to use an analytical technique that may require the sample to be mounted, cut up or consumed, and we need to find ways to have the samples extend as far as possible through all the stages of investigation.

In our lab, we’ve been working on several projects (focusing on Egyptian blue pigments, as well as archaeological glass from the Mediterranean and China) that require taking very small samples from archaeological objects. Most of us are at the stage in our research that require the samples to be mounted in epoxy and polished for various types of instrumental analysis.  Because we can only take very small samples (about a few millimeters in size) and we need to use several techniques (SEM-EDS, EPMA, SIMS, Raman), we’ve been trying to figure out the best way to prepare our samples so that they can be used for all the techniques that will be applied.   Since the analytical methods we want to use will all work on polished samples mounted in resin blocks, we decided to try and mount the samples this way. In order to make it easier and faster to analyze several mounted samples, we decided to place several of our samples in the same resin block.  Arranging the samples all in one mount, documenting them in a way so you know which sample is which and embedding and polishing them successfully is challenging enough. When you are mounting 10-16 samples, about a few mm wide, in a 1 inch diameter sample holder, it’s even more difficult!

Before you start, it’s good to have all the supplies you need out  at your work area, along with your samples. Using a binocular microscope is key to mounting such small samples. The materials/supplies we had for mounting our samples were: the sample holder (we embedded our samples in 1 inch diameter disc of epoxy resin and used a Teflon ring -cut from a longer Teflon tube) as our sample holder, tweezers, double-sided tape (at least 1 inch wide) , Mylar (2-3 mil polyester film),  a pen and small, hard portable, surface for mounting (we used a small tile or piece of glass). Steady hands of course are essential.  No sneezing is allowed, and holding your breath for a bit  may also be helpful when dealing with such small samples.  Of course don’t forget to eventually breathe-just not on your samples!.

glass-sample1

Once we had our supplies and samples at the microscope, we did the following:

  1. We took our hard portable surface (in this case a small tile) and attached a piece of Mylar to the top of the tile using double sided tape.  The Mylar will act as a barrier and prevent the epoxy we use for mounting from adhering to the tile (if not it will be impossible to remove the mounted samples from the surface of the tile).
  2. In the center of the Mylar covered tile, we placed 2 pieces of double sided tape, making sure the taped area was larger than 1 inch in diameter.  The tape will be used to hold the samples (and then the Teflon ring) in place during mounting.
  3. We took the Teflon ring and placed it over the two pieces of tape and drew a line to mark the interior diameter.  This would help guide us in placing our samples on the tape, making sure they are positioned in the center of the ring.

 

Now it’s time to take your samples and place them on the double sided tape.  Since we’re going to mount several samples, we placed our in rows, and tried to position them so they would fall within the center of the Teflon ring when mounted.  We marked the top of the Mylar to indicate orientation.  We also took notes and made a drawing to map where we were positioning the samples. Because some of the analysis we will be conducting will require quantitative analysis and the use of standards, we mounted small samples taken from a set of Corning Museum glass standards (A-D) we had in the lab along side our archaeological samples.

glass-sample2

Once we placed all our samples on the tape, we positioned the Teflon ring around them, on the guide lines we drew earlier.  Because the ring is made of Teflon, we don’t need to add any release agent because theepoxy resin won’t stick to it.

glass-sample-ring

Now we’re ready to mix up and pour in the epoxy resin to embed the samples.  We use Struer’s Epofix epoxy resin for mounting.

Even though the Teflon ring is well adhered to the double sided tape, there is the possibility that some of the resin might leak out from the bottom edge of the ring.  One way to avoid this is to seal the bottom edge of the Teflon ring.

A couple things we’ve tried are:

  • putting tape along the bottom exterior edge of the Teflon ring  (in the image above we used blue masking tape)
  • putting plasticine or modeling clay along the bottom edge
  • or sealing the exterior bottom edge with latex (This is the one that worked best for me.  I brushed Latex #74 molding compound from Douglas and Sturgess around the bottom edge.  Once the latex was set, I mixed together the epoxy resin and poured it into the ring and….no leaks!)

When embedding our samples in resin, we like to put them in a vacuum chamber after pouring in the epoxy to remove any air from the resin and the pores of our samples.  This will ensure the samples are completely impregnated with epoxy.  This is particularly important with porous samples, such as some of the very weathered glass samples I was going to analyze.

 glass-sample-vacuum   glass-sample-vacuum2

After the epoxy cures, the pressure is released from the vacuum and the tile/ring/mounted samples removed.

glass-sample-mounted2

The Teflon ring can now be lifted off the Mylar and the mounted samples removed from the ring.  The final step is to polish the samples.We start off with very fine grit sand paper (ranging from 600-1200 grit) and finish with Buehler MetaDi Diamond polishing suspension, first with 6 micron suspension followed by polishing with the 1 micron suspension as the final step. We want to make sure that the samples are exposed and that there are no scratches on the surface.

glass-sample-polishing

Once the mounted samples are polished, they are ready to be analyzed.

glass-sample-polished lofkend-samples

Having to mount numerous small samples together is tricky, but having all these samples in the same mount, plus the standards, will certainly save time during analysis!

Vanessa Muros (Conservation Specialist)


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Hammering Away in L.A.

On Tuesday, Professor Scott took us on a field trip to visit Dr. Arik Greenberg’s metal studio. Dr. Greenberg is a lecturer of Greco-Roman history and religion and has been involved with the Legion Six Historical Foundation, Inc. and the development of the Museum of the Ancient Roman Soldier.

Dr. Greenberg first gave us a presentation on Greco-Roman armor and weaponry.

1lesson on armor

We dressed Tom McClintock up as a soldier with replica armor, a shield, and a sword.

3tom solider

Dr. Greenberg then gave us a demonstration on the manufacturing of ancient copper helmets and iron swords, showing us different blacksmith forging techniques.

7arik remvoing metal from furnace 8arik hammering layers together

9after first hammering layers starting to combine

We then had the opportunity to work our own copper sheets into a bowls, which involved annealing and hammering. Lesley Day (left image) cools the metal she is working after annealing. Betsy Burr and Lesley (central image) hammer their copper sheets into shape. And Tom (right image) anneals his copper sheet.

5leslie cooling metal after annealing 6hammering into a shape 4annealing

The field trip was part of the course we are taking this quarter on the Technology and Deterioration of Metals (CAEM 263). Not only was our visit to Dr. Greenberg’s metal studio fun, but seeing how metals are worked, and trying our hand at making copper bowls, will help us better understand how the copper alloy objects we’re examining this quarter (and treating next quarter) were made.

I’ll end this post with the words of MC Hammer, because for us in the metal’s studio, it was definitely “Hammer Time”.

William Shelley (’16)


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UCLA/Getty Program Welcomes Visiting Scholar Dr. Xiaoqi Wang

The UCLA/Getty Program is pleased to welcome visiting scholar Dr. Xiaoqi Wang for the 2013-14 academic year. Dr. Wang received her Ph.D. at the University of Science and Technology of China in conservation science and archaeometry (2005). Her dissertation research focused on the conservation of ancient shipwrecks and waterlogged materials with work undertaken in the conservation lab of the Romano-Germanic Central Museum, Mainz, Germany. Xiaoqi was a postdoctoral fellow (2006-2012) at Nanjing University in geophysics performing archaeometric research on Chinese archaeological glass beads and pigments dating between 220B.C.-600A.D. She serves as the Research Fellow in Department of Archaeology at Nanjing University, where she has also been teaching archaeology undergraduate and graduate students about archaeometry and conservation science since 2005. She was a visiting scholar at the University of Vienna, Austria (2001) and the Romano-Germanic Central Museum (2004-2005), made possible with funding from the University of Vienna and Romano-Germanic Central Museum respectively

During her time here, Dr. Wang will be working with UCLA/Getty Program chair Dr. Ioanna Kakoulli, as well as other colleagues in the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program and the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. She will continue her research on beads and pigments focusing on the use of LA-ICP-MS, lead isotopic analysis and microscopy for their analysis. She is also focusing on ancient Chinese scroll paintings and hopes to connect with conservators, scientists and scholars on the identification of deterioration issues and solutions for preserving the paintings.

Xiaoqi-Wang


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And so they begin…Welcome to the class of 2016!

It’s Week 2 of the fall quarter and members of this year’s incoming class are excited to begin their work in the UCLA/Getty Conservation Program. They’ve dived right into this quarter’s classes which cover the technology and deterioration of ceramics and glass, principles and ethics in conservation, documentation and imaging techniques and science fundamentals in conservation. They will also have the opportunity to undertake two object based projects as part of their coursework: the examination and documentation of painted plaster and ceramic Oaxacan figurines from the Fowler Museum at UCLA and the documentation and condition assessment of ceramic vessels and figurines from the Southwest Museum-Autry National Center.  They certainly have a busy quarter ahead (and a busy next 2 years). We wish them luck with their coursework and lots of success in the conservation program!

The class of 2016. From L to R: Colette Khanaferov, William Shelley, Tom McClintock, Heather White, Betsy Burr, Lesley Day

The class of 2016. From L to R: Colette Khanaferov, William Shelley, Tom McClintock, Heather White, Betsy Burr, and Lesley Day


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Class of 2014′s Summer/3rd Year Placements

It’s finals week and the students are getting ready to head off (or some have already left) for their summer internships and 3rd year placements.  Here’s a list of all the exciting places they’ll be working at:

We wish them lots of success during their internship year and will see everyone again in Spring 2014!

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